Dengue is a viral infection caused by the dengue virus, which is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly Aedes aegypti. It is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, especially in urban and semi-urban areas. Dengue infection cannot be spread directly from person to person.
If you suspect you have dengue or have been exposed to the virus, it is important to seek medical attention for diagnosis and appropriate management. Early detection and medical care can help prevent complications and ensure proper treatment.
Table of Contents
Dengue is a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. The symptoms of dengue can vary from mild to severe, and some individuals may not experience any symptoms at all. The time between being bitten by an infected mosquito and the onset of symptoms (incubation period) typically ranges from 4 to 7 days. The symptoms of dengue may include:
- High Fever: Sudden onset of high fever, often reaching 104°F (40°C) or higher, which can last for 5 to 7 days.
- Severe Headache: Intense headache, usually located behind the eyes or in the temples.
- Pain in Joints and Muscles: Severe joint and muscle pain, often described as aching or a feeling of broken bones.
- Retro-Orbital Pain: Pain behind the eyes, worsened by eye movement.
- Fatigue: Extreme fatigue and weakness, which can persist for weeks.
- Skin Rash: Appearance of a maculopapular rash (red, flat spots or raised bumps) on the skin, usually starting on the arms, legs, and torso.
- Swollen Lymph Nodes: Swelling of lymph nodes, particularly in the neck and groin.
- Nausea and Vomiting: Nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.
- Abdominal Pain: Pain or discomfort in the abdomen.
- Bleeding: Some individuals with severe dengue (dengue hemorrhagic fever) may experience bleeding manifestations, such as nosebleeds, bleeding gums, or easy bruising.
It’s important to note that dengue can progress to a severe form known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS), which can be life-threatening. Warning signs of severe dengue include severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding, restlessness, and difficulty breathing. If you or someone you know experience these symptoms, it is crucial to seek medical attention immediately.
Remember, this is a general overview of dengue symptoms, and the presentation may vary from person to person. If you suspect you have dengue or have been exposed to the virus, it’s important to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.
Dengue is caused by the dengue virus, which belongs to the Flavivirus family. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes, particularly Aedes aegypti. Here are some key points about the causes of dengue:
- Aedes Mosquitoes: The primary mode of transmission of dengue is through the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes. These mosquitoes become infected with the dengue virus when they feed on the blood of a person already infected with the virus. Once infected, the mosquitoes can transmit the virus to other individuals they bite.
- Viral Reservoir: Humans are the main reservoir for the dengue virus. When a mosquito bites an infected person, it takes in the virus along with the blood. The virus then replicates in the mosquito and spreads to its salivary glands. Subsequently, when the infected mosquito bites another person, it injects the virus into the bloodstream, thus transmitting the infection.
- Multiple Dengue Virus Serotypes: There are four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus, labeled as DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4. Each serotype can cause dengue infection, and infection with one serotype does not provide lifelong immunity to the other serotypes. In fact, subsequent infections with a different serotype can increase the risk of developing severe dengue.
- Travel-Related Cases: Dengue can also be spread when individuals who are infected with the virus travel to regions where the Aedes mosquitoes are present. If those individuals are bitten by mosquitoes in the new location, the virus can be transmitted locally.
Preventing dengue primarily involves measures to control mosquito populations and minimize mosquito-human contact. Here are some key preventive measures to reduce the risk of dengue:
Eliminate Mosquito Breeding Sites:
- Remove standing water: Empty, clean, or cover containers that can collect water, such as buckets, flower pots, tires, and discarded containers.
- Change water: If water cannot be eliminated, such as in pet dishes or vases, change it regularly to prevent mosquito breeding.
- Clean and maintain: Keep gutters clean and free of debris to avoid water accumulation.
- Use Mosquito Repellents:
Apply insect repellents:
- Use mosquito repellents on exposed skin and clothing, following the product instructions. Look for products containing active ingredients such as DEET, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus.
- Use bed nets: Utilize mosquito nets, especially during sleep, to create a protective barrier against mosquito bites.
Wear Protective Clothing:
- Cover up: Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants, socks, and shoes to minimize exposed skin and reduce the risk of mosquito bites, especially during peak mosquito activity times (e.g., dawn and dusk).
Maintain Indoor Environment:
- Use screens: Install or repair window and door screens to prevent mosquitoes from entering your home or workplace.
Use air conditioning: If available, use air conditioning or keep windows and doors closed to create a mosquito-free environment.
- Public health campaigns: Participate in community-based efforts to raise awareness about dengue prevention and control measures.
Mosquito control programs: Support and cooperate with local mosquito control programs, such as insecticide spraying and larval control initiatives.
- If traveling to regions where dengue is prevalent, take additional precautions to prevent mosquito bites, such as using mosquito repellents, wearing protective clothing, and staying in accommodations with proper mosquito control measures.
- It’s important to note that dengue prevention is a collective effort involving individuals, communities, and public health authorities. By implementing these preventive measures, you can help reduce the risk of dengue transmission and protect yourself and your community from the infection.
Dengue Phase | Dengue Types
The progression of dengue fever is typically divided into three phases: the febrile phase, the critical phase, and the recovery phase. Let’s discuss each phase in detail:
- Febrile Phase: This is the initial phase of dengue fever and is characterized by the sudden onset of high fever, usually lasting for 2 to 7 days. During this phase, individuals may also experience symptoms such as severe headache, joint and muscle pain, pain behind the eyes, rash, and mild bleeding (e.g., nosebleeds or bleeding gums). The febrile phase is often mistaken for a severe flu or other viral illnesses.
- Critical Phase: After the febrile phase, some individuals may enter a critical phase, which usually occurs around the time the fever subsides. This phase is characterized by a decrease in fever and can last for 24 to 48 hours. However, it is during this phase that complications can arise. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are the two severe forms of dengue that can occur during the critical phase. Symptoms may include severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding from the nose or gums, rapid breathing, fatigue, and restlessness. These complications require immediate medical attention.
- Recovery Phase: If the individual does not develop severe complications during the critical phase, they will generally enter the recovery phase. In this phase, the symptoms gradually improve, and the individual begins to recover. However, it may take weeks for the complete recovery of strength and energy.
It’s important to note that dengue fever can vary in severity, and not all individuals progress through all the phases. Some individuals may experience a milder form of dengue without complications, while others may develop severe symptoms that require medical intervention.
Remember to eat only fresh vegetables and seasonal fruits that we get directly from mother earth.
However, in order to avoid the fruit’s negative effects, it is always best to consume it in moderation. Nothing in excessive amounts is healthy for our health.
Here we have discussed the Top 15 Conjunctivitis causes, prevention and symptoms. Practice eating healthy food & try to make at home as far as possible as it results to stay fit and healthy. Remember to eat more vegetables and homemade foods and eat fewer junk foods and practice yoga and visit yoga page.
What are the warning signs of dengue?
Abdominal pain or tenderness, Persistent vomiting, Clinical fluid accumulation, Mucosal bleed, Lethargy or restlessness, Liver enlargement > 2 cm, Rapid decrease in platelet count.
What is the 4 stages of dengue fever?
Dengue has 3 phases and begins after a typical incubation period of 5–7 days, and the course follows 3 phases: febrile, critical, and convalescent as seen in the post.
Where does dengue start?
The disease is common in many popular tourist destinations in the Caribbean (including Puerto Rico), Central and South America, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands & mostly spread’s where Aedes mosquitoes live.
How do you confirm dengue at home?
Belly pain, tenderness.
Vomiting (at least 3 times in 24 hours)
Bleeding from the nose or gums.
Vomiting blood, or blood in the stool.
Feeling tired, restless, or irritable.
What is the danger stage of dengue?
The most dangerous phase of the disease usually occurs from the 3rd to the 7th day after the onset of fever, better to have medication well and soon as possible.
Which day is most critical in dengue?
After the onset of the disease, the patient will self-freeze and this is the most dangerous period. So, dengue fever on the 4th day is the most dangerous.
Can we drink milk in dengue?
No, coffee contains caffeine and can cause excessive dehydration in the body. However, you can drink milk that contains high calories and will energise your body, which is good for recovery during dengue fever.
Which fruit is best in dengue?
Pomegranate, Kiwi, Malta, Papaya, Coconut Water, Dragon Fruit, Banana.
Which food is best for dengue recovery?
Carbohydrates are absolutely important for your body to regain its balance.
Oatmeal, Herbs and spices, Papaya leaves, Pomegranate, Coconut water, Broccoli, Herbal tea, Yogurt.