Measles Disease

10 Measles Disease Causes and Prevention


Measles Disease also known as rubeola, is a highly contagious viral infection that primarily affects children but can occur at any age. It is caused by the measles virus, which belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family. Measles is characterized by a distinctive rash, fever, and other symptoms. Here is some information about measles:

  1. Symptoms: The initial symptoms of measles usually appear around 10 to 14 days after exposure to the virus. Common symptoms include:
    • High fever, Runny nose, Cough, Red, watery eyes (conjunctivitis), Tiny white spots with bluish-white centers (Koplik spots) inside the mouth, Rash: A red, blotchy rash typically begins on the face and then spreads to other parts of the body, including the trunk, arms, and legs. The rash usually lasts for several days.
  2. Contagiousness: Measles is highly contagious and spreads through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can remain infectious in the air or on surfaces for several hours. Infected individuals are contagious from about four days before the rash appears to about four days after the rash starts.
  3. Complications: Measles can lead to various complications, particularly in young children and individuals with weakened immune systems. These complications can include:
    • Ear infections
    • Pneumonia
    • Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
    • Bronchitis
    • Croup (inflammation of the voice box and windpipe)
    • Pregnancy problems, such as premature labor or low birth weight (if a pregnant woman becomes infected)
  4. Prevention: Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent measles. The MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine provides immunity against measles and is typically given in two doses, with the first dose administered around 12 to 15 months of age and the second dose around 4 to 6 years of age. Vaccination not only protects individuals from measles but also helps prevent the spread of the virus within communities.
  5. Treatment: There is no specific antiviral treatment for measles. Most individuals with measles recover with rest, hydration, and supportive care to alleviate symptoms. Over-the-counter pain relievers can help reduce fever and discomfort. If complications arise or symptoms worsen, medical attention should be sought.

If you suspect you have measles or have been in contact with an infected person, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis, guidance, and treatment. Measles can be a serious illness, but with vaccination and appropriate care, its impact can be minimized.

Measles Symptoms

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms. The symptoms typically appear around 10 to 14 days after exposure to the virus. Here are the common symptoms associated with measles:

  1. High Fever: Measles usually begins with a high fever, often reaching temperatures of 38.3°C (101°F) or higher.
  2. Runny Nose: An early symptom of measles is a runny or congested nose. This can be accompanied by sneezing.
  3. Cough: Many individuals with measles develop a persistent cough, which can be dry or produce mucus.
  4. Red, Watery Eyes (Conjunctivitis): Measles can cause inflammation of the conjunctiva, the clear tissue that lines the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. This leads to redness, swelling, and excessive tearing of the eyes.
  5. Koplik Spots: These are small white spots with bluish-white centers that appear on the inside lining of the cheeks. They are a characteristic early sign of measles but are not always present in every case.
  6. Rash: A rash is a defining symptom of measles. It usually appears 2 to 4 days after the initial symptoms and begins as small, flat red spots. Over time, the spots merge together to form larger, raised patches. The rash typically starts on the face and spreads downward to the neck, trunk, arms, legs, and feet. It may last for several days and then gradually fade away.
  7. Sensitivity to Light: Some individuals with measles may experience sensitivity to light (photophobia), which can cause discomfort and squinting.
  8. Generalized Body Aches: Measles can cause muscle aches and pains throughout the body, leading to general discomfort.
  9. Fatigue and Malaise: Many people with measles feel tired, weak, and generally unwell (malaise) during the course of the illness.

It’s important to note that the severity and combination of symptoms can vary from person to person. In some cases, complications such as ear infections, pneumonia, or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) can occur.

Measles Prevention

Prevention of measles primarily involves vaccination and taking precautions to reduce the risk of exposure to the virus. Here are some key measures for measles prevention:

  1. Vaccination: The MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine is the most effective way to prevent measles. It is typically administered in two doses, with the first dose given around 12 to 15 months of age and the second dose around 4 to 6 years of age. The vaccine provides long-term immunity against measles and is highly effective in preventing the disease.
  2. Ensure Vaccination Status: Make sure you and your family members are up to date on the MMR vaccine. If you are uncertain about your vaccination history or have missed any doses, consult a healthcare professional to determine the appropriate vaccination schedule.
  3. Vaccination for Travel: If you are planning to travel internationally, especially to areas with ongoing measles outbreaks, check if you and your family members need additional doses of the MMR vaccine. Some countries may require proof of vaccination before entry.
  4. Stay Away from Infected Individuals: If you know someone who has been diagnosed with measles, try to avoid close contact with them until they are no longer contagious. Measles is highly contagious, and avoiding contact reduces the risk of transmission.
  5. Practice Good Hygiene: Practicing good hygiene can help reduce the risk of exposure to the measles virus. This includes:
    • Washing hands thoroughly with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after coughing, sneezing, or using the restroom.
    • Using hand sanitizer containing at least 60% alcohol if soap and water are not readily available.
    • Covering your mouth and nose with a tissue or your elbow when coughing or sneezing to prevent the spread of respiratory droplets.
    • Avoiding touching your face, particularly your eyes, nose, and mouth, as the virus can enter the body through these areas.
  6. Be Cautious in Community Settings: Be aware of measles outbreaks in community settings such as schools, colleges, or healthcare facilities. Follow any guidelines or recommendations provided by health authorities regarding vaccination campaigns, temporary closures, or other preventive measures.
  7. Seek Medical Attention: If you suspect you have measles or have been in contact with an infected person, seek medical attention for proper diagnosis, advice, and guidance. Healthcare professionals can provide accurate information and help manage the situation effectively.

Vaccination is the most effective preventive measure against measles.

Measles Causes

Measles is caused by the measles virus, which belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family. The virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets when an infected individual coughs, sneezes, or talks. Here are the main causes and factors related to the transmission of the measles virus:

  1. Direct Contact: Measles is primarily spread through direct contact with respiratory droplets from an infected person. When an infected individual coughs, sneezes, or talks, tiny droplets containing the measles virus are released into the air. These droplets can then be inhaled by nearby individuals, leading to infection.
  2. Airborne Transmission: The measles virus is highly contagious and can remain suspended in the air for up to two hours after an infected person has left the area. This means that individuals who enter the same airspace as an infected person during that time can inhale the virus and become infected.
  3. Contaminated Surfaces: The measles virus can also survive on surfaces for a short period. If an infected person touches their nose or mouth and then touches objects or surfaces without proper hand hygiene, the virus can be left behind. If another person touches these contaminated surfaces and then touches their face, particularly their nose, mouth, or eyes, they can become infected.
  4. Lack of Immunity: Individuals who have not been vaccinated or have not had measles before are more susceptible to the virus. Measles can affect individuals of any age, but it is more common in children who have not received the recommended doses of the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine.
  5. Travel: Measles can be imported from one country to another by infected individuals who are traveling. Unvaccinated individuals who visit or come in contact with people from areas with active measles outbreaks are at an increased risk of contracting the virus.

It is important to note that measles is highly contagious, and even a small number of infected individuals in a community can lead to outbreaks if the population has low vaccination rates or insufficient immunity.

Measles disease

Measles Diet

There is no specific diet to treat measles. However, maintaining a healthy and balanced diet is important to support overall health and boost the immune system, which can aid in recovery. Here are some dietary recommendations during and after measles:

  1. Stay Hydrated: It is crucial to stay well-hydrated, especially if you have a fever or are experiencing symptoms such as coughing or sweating. Drink plenty of fluids such as water, herbal teas, clear broths, and electrolyte-rich drinks to prevent dehydration.
  2. Nutrient-Rich Foods: Focus on consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods to provide your body with essential vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats in your diet.
  3. Vitamin C: Vitamin C is known for its immune-boosting properties. Include foods rich in vitamin C such as citrus fruits (oranges, lemons), berries, kiwi, bell peppers, and leafy green vegetables.
  4. Vitamin A: Vitamin A is important for maintaining the health of mucous membranes, including the respiratory system. Include foods rich in vitamin A such as carrots, sweet potatoes, dark leafy greens, and liver (if consumed).
  5. Protein: Protein is essential for tissue repair and recovery. Include lean sources of protein such as chicken, fish, tofu, legumes, and dairy products to support healing.
  6. Soft and Easy-to-Digest Foods: If you have mouth sores or difficulty swallowing due to the measles rash, choose soft, easily chewable foods that are gentle on the mouth. Examples include soups, cooked vegetables, yogurt, mashed potatoes, and smoothies.
  7. Avoid Irritating Foods: Spicy or acidic foods may irritate the mouth sores or the respiratory system, so it’s best to avoid them until you have fully recovered.
  8. Appetite and Individual Tolerance: During illness, loss of appetite is common. Eat according to your tolerance level and listen to your body’s signals. Eating smaller, more frequent meals may be easier if you have a decreased appetite.

Remember to consult with a healthcare professional or a registered dietitian for personalized dietary advice, especially if you have specific dietary restrictions, allergies, or underlying health conditions.

Remember to eat only fresh vegetables and seasonal fruits that we get directly from mother earth. 

However, in order to avoid the fruit’s negative effects, it is always best to consume it in moderation. Nothing in excessive amounts is healthy for our health.


Here we have discussed the Top 12 Measles Disease causes, prevention and symptoms. Practice eating healthy food & try to make at home as far as possible as it results to stay fit and healthy. Remember to eat more vegetables and homemade foods and eat fewer junk foods and practice yoga and visit yoga practice for beginners.

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